Crude oil, coal and gas supply about 85 per cent of the world’s energy consumption. Fossil fuels are valuable as sources of energy because they contain hydrocarbons and other carbon-based materials. The main anthropogenic impact affecting climate change is carbon-based fuel combustion. The initial response to this is to decrease or stop the use of carbon-based fuels, thereby minimizing the effect on environment. Natural gas is a fossil fuel but its combustion emissions from global warming are far lower than those from coal or oil. When combusted in a modern, powerful natural gas power plant, natural gas emits 50 to 60 per cent less carbon dioxide compared to emissions from a conventional new coal plant. A significant CO2 emission is prevented by the classic renewable energy sources, biomass and hydro power. Growing more biomass at relatively low cost will play an immediate role in absorbing excess CO2. Passive solar techniques have tremendous energy saving potential, wind power is the cheapest source of electricity, and solar energy provides good options for long-term substitution of a large amount of fossil fuels. In this paper we will examine the impacts of carbon abatement policies on energy use.
X. ÉVF. 2022. 2. SZÁM 58-61
BARRETT, S.,- STAVINS N.. (2003). Increasing Participation and Compliance in International Climate Change Agreements. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, 3, 349–376.
BODANSKY, D. (2016): The legal character of the Paris Agreement. Review of European, Comparative & International Environmental Law, 25(2), 142–150.
BODLE, R., & OBERTHÜR, S. (2017): Legal form of the Paris Agreement and nature of its obligations. In D. R. Klein, M. P. Carazo, M. Doelle, J. Bulmer, & A. Higham
BRUN, A. (2016): Conference diplomacy: The making of the Paris Agreement. Politics and Governance, 4(3), 115–123.
CLOY, J. M. (2018): Greenhouse gas sources and sinks. – Encyclopedia of the Anthropocene 2: 391-400.
DIMITROV, R. S. (2016): The Paris Agreement on climate change: Behind closed doors. Global Environmental Politics, 16(3), 1–11.
DOELLE, M. (2017): Assessment of strengths and weaknesses. In D. R. Klein, M. P. Carazo, M. Doelle, J. Bulmer, & A. Higham (Eds.), The Paris Agreement on climate change. Analysis and commentary (pp. 375–388). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
FROLKING, S., ROULET, N., FUGLESTVEDT, J. (2006): How northern peatlands influence the earth’s radiative budget: sustained methane emission versus sustained carbon sequestration. – Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences 111: G01008.
HDR 2020 https://hdr.undp.org/en/2020-report
KLEIN, D. R., CARAZO, M. P., DOELLE, M., BULMER, J., & HIGHAM, A. (Eds.). (2017): The Paris Agreement on climate change: Analysis and commentary. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Mace, M., – Verheyen, R. (2016): Loss, damage and responsibility after COP 21: All options open for the Paris Agreement. Review of European, Comparative & International Environmental Law, 25(2), 197–214.
NORDHAUS, W.D. (2018). Projections and uncertainties about climate change in an era of minimal climate policies. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, 10 (3), 333-360.
PERRY, L. G., ANDERSEN, D. C., REYNOLDS, L. V., NELSON, S. M., SHAFROTH, P. B. (2012): Vulnerability of riparian ecosystems to elevated CO2 and climate change in arid and semiarid western North America. – Global Change Biology 18(3): 821-842.
RAJAMANI, L. (2016): Ambition and differentiation in the 2015 Paris Agreement: Interpretative possibilities and underlying politics. International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 65(2), 493–514.
RAMANATHAN, V., J.E. ALLISON, M. AUFFHAMMER, D. AUSTON, A.D. BARNOSKY, L. CHIANG, W.D. COLLINS, S.J. DAVIS, F. FORMAN, S.B. HECHT, D.M. KAMMEN, C.-Y.C. LIN LAWELL, T. MATLOCK, D. PRESS, D. ROTMAN, S. SAMUELSEN, G. SOLOMON, D.G. VICTOR, B. WASHOM, AND J. CHRISTENSEN. (2016). Chapter 1. Bending the curve: Ten scalable solutions for carbon neutrality and climate stability. In V. Ramanathan (Ed.), Bending the Curve: Ten scalable solutions for carbon neutrality and climate stability. Collabra, 2 (1), Article 15, 1-17.
SHAO, J., ZHOU, X., LUO, Y., LI, B., AURELA, M., BILLESBACH, D. (2016): Direct and indirect effects of climatic variations on the interannual variability in net ecosystem exchange across terrestrial ecosystems. – Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology 68: 30575
WINKLER, H. (2017): Mitigation (Article 4). In D. R. Klein, M. P. Carazo, M. Doelle, J. Bulmer, & A. Higham (Eds.), The Paris Agreement on climate change. Analysis and commentary (pp. 141–166). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.