Analysis of the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol in Countries with Different Development Level

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer) is a major multinational environmental agreement that controls the manufacture and consumption of approximately 100 man-made compounds known as ozone depleting substances (ODS). When such compounds are released into the sky, they disrupt the stratospheric ozone layer, which protects humans and the environment from hazardous levels of UV light from the sun. The Protocol is the only UN treaty to date that has been ratified by all 198 UN Member States. The world faces old and new problems that are more complicated than our currently capable multilateral and national institutions. To face these challenges, international cooperation is becoming ever more important. An international environmental agreement is a kind of treaty that is binding in international law, allowing them to accomplish an environmental goal. This paper deals with the impact of Montreal Protocol by analysing CFC emissions developed and developing countries.

X. ÉVF. 2022. 1. SZÁM 60-65

DOI: 10.24387/CI.2022.1.10


ANDERSEN, S. O. – K. M. SARMA. (2002): Protecting the Ozone Layer: The United Nations History (London: Earthscan).

ARNOLD M, DE VRIES E, WHITEMAN DC, JEMAL A, BRAY F, PARKIN DM AND SOERJOMATARAM I, (2018): Global burden of cutaneous melanoma attributable to ultraviolet radiation in 2012, Int. J. Cancer, 143, 1305–1314.

COMPTON, M.-HART, P. (edit) (2019): Great Policy Successes. Oxford University Press pp. 353.

FLAXMAN SR, BOURNE RRA, RESNIKOFF S, ACKLAND P, BRAITHWAITE T, CICINELLI MV, DAS A, JONAS JB, KEEFFE J, KEMPEN JH, LEASHER J, LIMBURG H, NAIDOO K, PESUDOVS K, SILVESTER A, STEVENS GA, TAHHAN N, WONG TY, TAYLOR HR AND VISION LOSS EXPERT GROUP OF THE GLOBAL BURDEN OF DISEASE S, 2017, Global causes of blindness and distance vision impairment 1990–2020: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Lancet Glob. Health, 5, e1221–e1234.

GORDON LG AND ROWELL D, (2015): Health system costs of skin cancer and cost-effectiveness of skin cancer prevention and screening: a systematic review, Eur. J. Cancer. Prev., 24, 141–149.

HODZIC A – MADRONICH S, (2018): Response of surface ozone over the continental United States to UV radiation declines from the expected recovery of stratospheric ozone, npj Clim. Atmos. Sci., 1, 35.

International Tax and Public Finance 22(6): 932-955.

MOLINA, J-ROWLAND, F. (1974): ‘Stratospheric Sink for Chlorofluoromethanes: Chlorine Atom-Catalysed Destruction of Ozone’. Nature 249(5460), 810–12.

NASA (2018): What is ozone? Search engine: Google. Keywords: ozone, layer. Retrieved: 05/03/2020

NORMAN J (2020): „Rowland & Molina Suggest that CFCs Deplete the Ozone Layer” Search engine: Google.Keywords: Rowland, Molina Retrieved: 05/04/2020

PARSON, E. A. (2003): Protecting the Ozone Layer: Science and Strategy (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

PARSON, E. A. (2003): Protecting the Ozone Layer: Science and Strategy (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

ROBSON TM, HARTIKAINEN SM AND APHALO PJ, (2015): How does solar ultraviolet-B radiation improve drought tolerance of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) seedlings? Plant Cell. Environ. 38, 953–967.

SANDHU PK, ELDER R, PATEL M, SARAIYA M, HOLMAN DM, PERNA F, SMITH RA, BULLER D, SINCLAIR C, REEDER A, MAKIN J, MCNOE B, GLANZ K AND COMMUNITY PREVENTIVE SERVICES TASK F, (2016): Community-wide interventions to prevent skin cancer: Two community guide systematic reviews, Am. J. Prev. Med., 51, 531–539.

SOLOMON, K. R. (2008): ‘Effects of Ozone Depletion and UV-B Radiation on Humans and the Environment’. Atmosphere-Ocean 46(1), 185–202.


WIJEWARDANA C, HENRY WB, GAO W AND REDDY KR,( 2016): Interactive effects on CO2, drought, and ultraviolet-B radiation on maize growth and development, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B., 160, 198–209.